Sheet Metal Welding Guide

Sheet Metal Welding Guide

SMACNA

Description

This publication is intended to assist contractors, estimators and shop supervisors in profitably managing the welding activity in a sheet metal shop.

Updated coverage of welding processes; flux-cored wire guidelines; and the latest equipment. The safety chapter covers such items as health effects, hazard controls and safety procedures. Other chapters include guidelines for:

  • developing welding procedures,
  • controlling weld quality, estimating,
  • hiring and training welders, and
  • welder certification.

Details

Topic
Technical Manuals, Technical Standards, Industrial Duct Construction Standards
Media Type
Book
Publication Year
2007
Page Count
174
Edition
Third

Table of Contents

FOREWORD
iii
WELDING TASK FORCE
iv
NOTICE TO USERS OF THIS PUBLICATION
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1
1.1 BACKGROUND
1.1
1.2 CODE WELDING
1.2
1.3 CONTENTS OF THIS MANUAL
1.3
CHAPTER 2 WELDING AND CUTTING PROCESSES
2.1
2.1 PROCESSES
2.1
2.2 CARBON ARC WELDING (CAW)
2.1
2.3 SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)
2.2
2.4 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW)
2.8
2.5 GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW)
2.16
2.6 FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW)
2.25
2.7 METAL CORED WELDING
2.27
2.8 PLASMA ARC WELDING (PAW)
2.31
2.9 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)
2.32
2.10 LASER BEAM WELDING (LBW)
2.34
2.11 RESISTANCE WELDING (RW)
2.34
2.12 OXY-FUEL CUTTING (OFC)
2.34
2.13 PLASMA ARC CUTTING (PAC)
2.35
2.14 PLASMA ARC GOUGING
2.35
2.15 AIR CARBON ARC GOUGING
2.36
Table 2-1 Welding Processes
2.1
Table 2-2 SMAW Performance Characteristics of Covered Carbon Steel Electrodes
2.4
Table 2-3 SMAW Welding Variables for Carbon Steel
2.5
Table 2-4 SMAW Welding Variables for Galvanized Steel
2.5
Table 2-5 SMAW Electrodes for Welding Stainless Steels
2.6
Table 2-5 SMAW Electrodes for Welding Stainless Steels (Continued)
2.7
Table 2-6 SMAW Welding Variables for Austenitic Stainless Steel
2.8
Table 2-7 GTAW Tungsten Electrodes
2.10
Table 2-8 GTAW Procedure for Carbon Steel
2.11
Table 2-9 GTAW Welding Variables for Carbon Steel
2.11
Table 2-10 GTAW Welding Variables for Galvanized Steel
2.12
Table 2-11 GTAW Procedure for Stainless Steel
2.12
Table 2-12 GTAW Welding Variables for Austenitic Stainless Steel
2.13
Table 2-13 GTAW Welding Variables for Aluminum
2.13
Table 2-14 GTAW Welding Current Selections
2.14
Table 2-15 GTAW Current Ranges for Tungsten Electrodes
2.14
Table 2-16 GTAW Shielding Gas Selections
2.15
Table 2-17 GMAW Welding Variables for Carbon Steel
2.18
Table 2-18 GMAW Welding Variables for Galvanized Steel
2.19
Table 2-19 GMAW Welding Variables for Stainless Steel
2.19
Table 2-20 GMAW Welding Variables for Aluminum
2.20
Table 2-21 GMAW Filler Metals
2.22
Table 2-21 GMAW Filler Metals (Continued)
2.23
Table 2-22 GMAW Shielding Gas Selections, Spray Transfer
2.24
Table 2-23 GMAW Shielding Gas Selections, Short Circuit Transfer
2.24
Table 2-24 FCAW Welding Electrodes and Related Variables
2.28
Table 2-25 SMAW / FCAW Electrode Equivalents
2.29
Table 2-26 FCAW Electrodes for Stainless Steel
2.30
FIGURE 2-1 CARBON ARC WELDING AND BRAZING PROCESS
2.1
FIGURE 2-2 CARBON ARC WELDING AND BRAZING EQUIPMENT
2.2
FIGURE 2-3 SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING PROCESS
2.3
FIGURE 2-4 SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT
2.3
FIGURE 2-5 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING PROCESS
2.8
FIGURE 2-6 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT
2.9
FIGURE 2-7 GRINDING OF TUNGSTEN ELECTRODES
2.10
FIGURE 2-8 GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCESS
2.16
FIGURE 2-9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT
2.17
FIGURE 2-10 FLUX CORED ARC WELDING PROCESS
2.25
FIGURE 2-11 GUN POSITIONS FOR FCAW
2.26
FIGURE 2-12 FLUX-CORED WELDING EQUIPMENT
2.26
FIGURE 2-13 PLASMA WELDING PROCESS
2.31
FIGURE 2-14 PLASMA ARC WELDING MODES
2.32
FIGURE 2-15 PLASMA ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT
2.33
FIGURE 2-16 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING PROCESS
2.33
FIGURE 2-17 OXY-FUEL CUTTING
2.34
FIGURE 2-18 OXYFUEL CUTTING EQUIPMENT
2.35
FIGURE 2-19 PLASMA CUTTER
2.35
CHAPTER 3 WELDING EQUIPMENT
3.1
3.1 TYPES OF EQUIPMENT
3.1
3.2 POWER SOURCES, APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
3.1
3.3 WELDING CABLES
3.3
3.4 WIRE FEEDERS FOR GMAW AND FCAW
3.4
3.5 BOOMS FOR GMAW AND FCAW PROCESS
3.6
3.6 WELDING GUNS FOR GMAW AND FCAW
3.6
3.7 TORCHES FOR GTAW
3.7
3.8 SEAM WELDING MACHINES
3.7
3.9 TURNING ROLLS
3.9
3.10 WELDING POSITIONERS, TAIL STOCKS, TURN TABLES, MANIPULATORS, ETC.
3.9
3.11 ELECTRODE OVENS
3.9
3.12 MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
3.10
3.13 SAFETY AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
3.10
Table 3-1 Suggested Copper Cable Sizes
3.4
FIGURE 3-1 POWER SOURCE
3.2
FIGURE 3-2 PORTABLE WELDING MACHINE
3.2
FIGURE 3-3 WELDING CABLE CONSTRUCTION
3.4
FIGURE 3-4 SPOOL-ON-GUN WIRE FEEDER
3.5
FIGURE 3-5 PORTABLE GUN ASSEMBLY
3.5
FIGURE 3-6 BOOM CART
3.6
FIGURE 3-7 FCAW / GMAW GUNS
3.7
FIGURE 3-8 TORCHES FOR GTAW
3.7
FIGURE 3-9 EXTERNAL SEAM WELDER
3.8
FIGURE 3-10 INTERNAL SEAM WELDER
3.8
FIGURE 3-11 POWER TURNING ROLL AND WELDHEAD POSITIONER
3.9
FIGURE 3-12 ELECTRIC DRYING OVEN
3.10
FIGURE 3-13 HAND-HELD BEVELER
3.11
FIGURE 3-14 POWER NIBBLER
3.11
CHAPTER 4 SAFETY
4.1
4.1 MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES
4.1
4.2 AIR CONTAMINATION
4.1
4.3 ARC RADIATION
4.1
4.4 ELECTRICAL SHOCK
4.1
4.5 FIRE AND EXPLOSION
4.2
4.6 COMPRESSED GASES
4.2
4.7 HEAT
4.2
4.8 NOISE
4.3
4.9 BASIC DOCUMENT REFERENCES
4.3
4.10 SAFETY PROCEDURES
4.3
4.11 SMACNA’S SAFETY AND HEALTH DEPARTMENT
4.3
Table 4-1 Control of Welding Hazards
4.4
CHAPTER 5 WELDED JOINT DESIGN
5.1
5.1 BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
5.1
5.2 WELDING SYMBOLS AND TYPES OF WELDS
5.1
5.3 WELDING POSITIONS
5.9
5.4 TYPES OF JOINTS AND EDGE PREPARATION
5.9
5.5 WELD STRENGTH
5.14
FIGURE 5-1 STANDARD LOCATION OF ELEMENTS OF A WELDING SYMBOL
5.2
FIGURE 5-2 SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS
5.2
FIGURE 5-3 TYPICAL WELD SYMBOLS USED FOR SHEET METAL AND LIGHT PLATE
5.3
FIGURE 5-4 THE FIVE BASIC TYPES OF GROOVE WELDS
5.4
FIGURE 5-5 WELDING SYMBOLS FOR FILLET WELDS
5.5
FIGURE 5-6 WELDING SYMBOLS FOR INTERMITTENT FILLET WELDS
5.6
FIGURE 5-7 WELDING SYMBOLS FOR EDGE FLANGE WELDS
5.7
FIGURE 5-8 WELDING SYMBOLS FOR CORNER FLANGE WELDS
5.8
FIGURE 5-9 BASIC WELDING POSITIONS
5.9
FIGURE 5-10 BASIC WELDING JOINTS
5.10
FIGURE 5-10A JOINTS, WELDS, AND GROOVES
5.11
FIGURE 5-11 WELDED JOINT DESIGNS - BUTT JOINTS (B)
5.12
FIGURE 5-12 WELDED JOINT DESIGNS - CORNER AND TEE JOINTS (C AND T)
5.13
CHAPTER 6 STANDARDS, CODES & SPECIFICATIONS
6.1
6.1 HISTORY
6.1
6.2 DEVELOPING A WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION
6.1
6.3 WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION
6.1
6.4 WELDER QUALIFICATION
6.2
FIGURE 6-1
6.4
FIGURE 6-1A
6.5
FIGURE 6-2
6.6
FIGURE 6-2A
6.7
FIGURE 6-3
6.8
FIGURE 6-3A
6.9
CHAPTER 7 WELD QUALITY
7.1
7.1 QUALITY OF WELDS
7.1
7.2 PRE-WELD CONSIDERATION
7.1
7.3 WELD INSPECTION
7.1
7.4 TROUBLE-SHOOTING WELD QUALITY
7.2
Table 7-1 SMAW Troubleshooting Guide
7.3
Table 7-2 GMAW Troubleshooting Guide
7.4
Table 7-2 GMAW Troubleshooting Guide (Continued)
7.5
Table 7-3 GTAW Troubleshooting Guide
7.6
FIGURE 7-1 EXAMPLES OF GOOD AND BAD WELDS
7.2
CHAPTER 8 ESTIMATING WELDING COSTS
8.1
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.1
8.2 COST CONSIDERATIONS
8.1
8.3 ADDITIONAL COST CONSIDERATIONS
8.1
8.4 FACTORS
8.1
8.5 BASIC COST EQUATIONS
8.3
8.6 COST COMPUTATIONS
8.4
8.7 REDUCING WELDING COSTS
8.6
8.8 QUICK METHOD FOR ESTIMATING WELD COSTS
8.6
Table 8-1 Sheet Metal Welding Parameters (IP)
8.8
Table 8-1M Sheet Metal Welding Parameters (SI)
8.9
Table 8-2 Conversion Table, Inches of Wire per Pound
8.10
Table 8-2M Conversion Table, Meters of Wire per Kilogram
8.10
Table 8-3 SMAW Welding Parameters – Butt Welds
8.11
Table 8-4 SMAW Welding Parameters – Edge Welds
8.12
Table 8-5 SMAW Welding Parameters – Fillet Welds
8.13
Table 8-6 SMAW Welding Parameters – Lap Welds
8.14
Table 8-7 SMAW Welding Parameters – Corner Welds
8.15
Table 8-8 SMAW AC Arc Speed (in./min.) Data - Corner Welds
8.16
Table of Useful Conversions (I-P to SI)
8.16
CHAPTER 9 TRAINING OF WELDERS
9.1
9.1 IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
9.1
9.2 RESOURCES FOR TRAINING
9.1
9.3 TRAINING FOR QUALIFICATION
9.1
9.4 RE-QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS
9.2
9.5 REFERENCES
9.2
9.6 SUPPLEMENTAL TRAINING
9.2
9.7 WELDER CERTIFICATION
9.2
CHAPTER 10 HIRIING OF WELDERS
10.1
10.1 CHECK LIST FOR HIRING WELDERS
10.1
10.2 GENERAL KNOWLEDGE TEST
10.2
Table 10-1 Welder Qualification Test Options
10.1
APPENDIX A RECOMMENDED FILLER METALS
A.1
Table A-1 F Number Grouping of Welding Electrodes and Rods
A.1
Table A-1 F Number Grouping of Welding Electrodes and Rods (Continued)
A.2
APPENDIX B REFERENCED DOCUMENTS AND OTHER RESOURCES
B.1
B.1 CHAPTER 2 – ELECTRIC ARC WELDING PROCESSES
B.1
B.2 CHAPTER 4 – SAFETY
B.1
B.3 REFERENCED ASSOCIATIONS
B.2
B.4 CHAPTER 5 – WELD JOINT DESIGN
B.2
B.5 LIST OF WELDING TRAINING FACILITIES (OTHER THAN ITI SUPPORTED UNITS)
B.2
GLOSSARY WELDING TERMS AND DEFINITIIONS
G.1
Figure G-1 Parts of a Weld
G.3
INDEX
I.1